Over the past decade, vegan and vegetarian diets have gained popularity in the UK, with a growing number of individuals adopting plant-based eating habits. These diets are linked to positive health outcomes such as lower BMI, improved cardiometabolic profiles, and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, research suggests potential risks of suboptimal nutrition associated with these dietary patterns. Conflicting findings exist regarding the impact of vegan and vegetarian diets on mental and sleep health. Some studies show positive outcomes, while others report null or inverse associations. Inconsistencies in defining these diets, classifying meat products, and variations in statistical models and covariates contribute to these mixed results. Additionally, differences in psychological and behavioural characteristics among vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores may influence the associations between diet and mental and sleep health. This research examines the roles of personality and dietary identity in predicting mental and sleep health-related outcomes in individuals who adhere to vegan and vegetarian diets.