Association between urinary metabolic profile and the intestinal effects of cocoa in rats

Malen Massot-Cladera, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Adele Costabile, Jonathan R Swann, Angels Franch, Francisco J. Perez-Cano, Margarida Castell

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Scope: The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between the urine metabolomics fingerprints with the effects of cocoa and cocoa fiber on body weight and metabolism, microbiota composition and intestinal immunity. 

Methods and results: Wistar rats were fed, for two weeks, either a diet containing 10% cocoa (C10, providing a final proportion of 0.4% polyphenols, 0.85% soluble fiber and 2.55% insoluble fiber), or two other diets with same proportion of soluble fiber: one based on cocoa fiber (CF, with a very low amount of polyphenols) and other containing inulin as a reference diet (REF). Twenty-four hours urine samples were collected after two weeks of diet and metabolomics analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy was carried out. Concentration of fecal IgA and metabolic hormones in plasma were also quantified. Clear differences were observed between the urine from the C10 group and those from the CF group (Q2Y=0.89; p=0.001). The C10 diet decreased the fecal IgA, GLP-1 and glucagon concentrations. Urine metabolites mainly derived from cocoa catechin and methylxanthines were correlated with their effects on body weight, microbiota and immunity.

Conclusions: These results allow us to establish a relationship between metabolomics of cocoa compounds and their effects.

© 2017, The Authors. This is the final publishedversion of the article (version of record) uploaded in accordance with thepublisher’s self- archiving policy. It first appeared online via Cambridge University Press at
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2017

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