Does high dietary protein intake contribute to the increased risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes?

Oana Ancu, Monika Mickute, Nicola Guess, Nick Hurren, Nicholas Burd, Richard Mackenzie

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Abstract

Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder implicated in the development of many chronic diseases. While it is generally accepted that body mass loss should be the primary approach for the management of insulin-resistance related disorders in overweight and obese individuals, there is no consensus among researchers regarding optimal protein intake during
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dietary restriction. Recently, it has been suggested that increased plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAAs) concentrations are associated with the development of insulin resistance and T2D. The exact mechanism by which excessive amino acid availability may contribute to insulin resistance has not been fully investigated. However, it has been hypothesised that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) hyperactivation in the presence of amino acid overload contributes to reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake due to insulin receptor substrate (IRS) degradation and reduced Akt-AS160 activity. In addition, the long- term effects of high-protein diets on insulin sensitivity during both weight stable and weight loss conditions require more research. This review focusses on the effects of high-protein diets on insulin sensitivity and discusses the potential mechanisms by which dietary amino acids can affect insulin signaling.

Novelty bullets: Excess amino acids may over-activate mTOR, resulting in desensitisation of IRS-1 and reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2020

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