Objective: Investigate effect of 3-weeks high (SWEET) versus low (PLAIN) sugar breakfast
on energy balance, metabolic health, and appetite.
Methods: 29 healthy adults (22 women) completed this randomised crossover study.
Participants had pre- and post-intervention appetite, health and body mass outcomes
measured, and recorded diet, appetite (visual analogue scales) and physical activity for 8 days
during each intervention. Interventions were 3-weeks iso-energetic SWEET (30% by weight
added sugar; average 32g sugar) versus PLAIN (no added sugar; average 8g sugar) porridgebased
Results: Pre- to post-intervention changes in body mass were similar between PLAIN (Δ0.1,
95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3, 0.5kg) and SWEET (Δ0.2, 95% CI -0.2, 0.5kg), as were
pre- to post-intervention changes for biomarkers of health (all p≥0.101) and psychological
appetite (all p≥0.152). Energy, fat and protein intake were not statistically different between
conditions. Total carbohydrate intake was higher during SWEET (287±82g∙d-1 versus
256±73g∙d-1; p=0.009), driven more by higher breakfast sugar intake (116±46g∙d-1 versus
88±38g∙d-1; p<0.001) than post-breakfast sugar intake (SWEET 84±42g∙d-1 versus PLAIN
80±37g∙d-1; p=0.552). Participants reported reduced sweet desire immediately after SWEET
but not PLAIN breakfasts (trial*time p<0.001).
Conclusions: Energy balance, health markers, and appetite did not respond differently to 3-
weeks of high or low sugar breakfasts.