Fecal microbiota and bile acid interactions with systemic and adipose tissue metabolism in diet-induced weight loss of obese postmenopausal women.

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Abstract

Background
Microbiota and bile acids in the gastrointestinal tract profoundly alter systemic metabolic processes. In obese subjects, gradual weight loss ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and related systemic changes. We assessed how rapid weight loss due to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) affects the fecal microbiome and fecal bile acid composition, and their interactions with the plasma metabolome and subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.

Methods
We performed a prospective cohort study of VLCD-induced weight loss of 10% in ten grades 2–3 obese postmenopausal women in a metabolic unit. Baseline and post weight loss evaluation included fasting plasma analyzed by mass spectrometry, adipose tissue transcription by RNA sequencing, stool 16S rRNA sequencing for fecal microbiota, fecal bile acids by mass spectrometry, and urinary metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Outcome measures included mixed model correlations between changes in fecal microbiota and bile acid composition with changes in plasma metabolite and adipose tissue gene expression pathways.

Results
Alterations in the urinary metabolic phenotype following VLCD-induced weight loss were consistent with starvation ketosis, protein sparing, and disruptions to the functional status of the gut microbiota. We show that the core microbiome was preserved during VLCD-induced weight loss, but with changes in several groups of bacterial taxa with functional implications. UniFrac analysis showed overall parallel shifts in community structure, corresponding to reduced abundance of the genus Roseburia and increased Christensenellaceae;g__ (unknown genus). Imputed microbial functions showed changes in fat and carbohydrate metabolism. A significant fall in fecal total bile acid concentration and reduced deconjugation and 7-α-dihydroxylation were accompanied by significant changes in several bacterial taxa. Individual bile acids in feces correlated with amino acid, purine, and lipid metabolic pathways in plasma. Furthermore, several fecal bile acids and bacterial species correlated with altered gene expression pathways in adipose tissue.

Conclusions
VLCD dietary intervention in obese women changed the composition of several fecal microbial populations while preserving the core fecal microbiome. Changes in individual microbial taxa and their functions correlated with variations in the plasma metabolome, fecal bile acid composition, and adipose tissue transcriptome.

Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01699906, 4-Oct-2012, Retrospectively registered. URL-https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01699906

© 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Translational Medicine
Early online date3 Sep 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Sep 2018

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