Finding the Right Management Approach in Independent Hotels

Alireza Nazarian, Peter Atkinson, Pantea Foroudi, Karen Dennis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Downloads (Pure)


This study identifies factors that managers can influence to improve effectiveness by examining the relationship between leadership and effectiveness in small and medium sized independent hotels.
272 valid questionnaires were collected from managers of 83 small and medium sized independent hotels in the Netherlands using selective and snowball sampling techniques. A two-stage structural equation modelling approach was used to test the hypotheses.
Surprisingly, in contradiction to previous studies neither transactional nor transformational leadership had a direct effect on organisational effectiveness. Instead, the effect was through the intervening variables of ability to acquire resources and reward mechanisms.
Research limitations/implications
The contradiction between this and previous studies may be due to the constructs used in this study not having the universal applicability that is customarily assumed and further investigation is needed.
Our study suggests that managers in this type of hotel, first, should be adaptable in their leadership style and not rely on transactional leadership alone; second, managers must pay attention to resource acquisition and, third, retain staff by using the right reward mechanism.
This study contributes to the literatures of leadership and effectiveness in small and medium sized independent hotels by being the first to focus on the impact of ability to acquire resources and reward mechanism. It also makes an important contribution to the growing body of hospitality literature that probes the supposed universal validity of organisational studies constructs.
Keywords: CVF, effectiveness, leadership, resource acquisition, rewards mechanism, independent hotels.

© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. This is an author produced version of a paper published in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self- archiving policy. The final published version (version of record) is available online at the link. Some minor differences between this version and the final published version may remain. We suggest you refer to the final published version should you wish to cite from it.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2862-2883
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2019


  • CVF
  • effectiveness
  • leadership
  • resource acquisition
  • rewards mechanism
  • independent hotels

Cite this