SCOPE: Cocoa, especially the water-insoluble cocoa fraction (WICF), is a rich source of polyphenols. In this study, sequential in vitro digestion of the WICF with gastrointestinal enzymes as well as its bacterial fermentation in a human colonic model system were carried out to investigate bioaccessibility and biotransformation of WICF polyphenols, respectively.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The yield of each enzymatic digestion step and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured and solubilized phenols were characterized by MS/MS. Fermentation of WICF and the effect on the gut microbiota, SCFA production and metabolism of polyphenols was analyzed. In vitro digestion solubilized 38.6% of WICF with pronase and Viscozyme L treatments releasing 51% of the total phenols from the insoluble material. This release of phenols does not determine a reduction in the total antioxidant capacity of the digestion-resistant material. In the colonic model WICF significantly increased of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli as well as butyrate production. Flavanols were converted into phenolic acids by the microbiota following a concentration gradient resulting in high concentrations of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3-HPP) in the last gut compartment.
CONCLUSION: Data showed that WICF may exert antioxidant action through the gastrointestinal tract despite its polyphenols being still bound to macromolecules and having prebiotic activity.
- Biological Availability
- Gastrointestinal Tract