Uroguanylin is a peptide gut hormone proposed to have a role in signalling post meal satiety. Uroguanylin circulates as its pro-hormone, prouroguanylin. There has been limited investigation of the regulation of prouroguanylin by food; therefore we investigated prouroguanylin regulation following meals. In separate experiments we investigated the effects of high calorie (1451 kcal) and medium calorie (725 kcal), high fat meals, on plasma prouroguanylin concentrations. We then examined the effect of a 722.5 kcal high carbohydrate breakfast on prouroguanylin concentrations, comparing the response in healthy weight adults versus those who are overweight/ with obesity. The 1451 kcal meal increased prouroguanylin concentrations, versus fasting at 60 (P<0.05), 90 (P<0.01) and 120 (P<0.001) minutes. After the 725 kcal meal hormone concentrations rose more slowly and were significant versus fasting concentrations at 120 minutes (P<0.01). The high carbohydrate breakfast 722.5 kcal, led to an initial suppression of hormone concentrations at 30 mins post meal (P<0.05) followed by an increase in concentrations until they were significant versus fasting at 120 mins (P<0.01). Participants overweight/ with obesity had lower fasting prouroguanylin concentrations (P<0.05), but post meal concentrations did not differ between the groups. Our results suggest there is a delayed increase in prouroguanylin concentrations following, large and regular sized mixed macronutrient meals rich in fat or carbohydrate. Fasting levels are suppressed in people who are overweight/ with obesity, but the post meal response remains intact. There may be potential to target post meal release of prouroguanylin in obesity.
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