'Protestation, Vow, Covenant and Engagement: Swearing Allegiance in the English Civil War'

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    This article discusses four political tests imposed between 1641 and 1649. Using printed pamphlets and manuscript oath rolls, the article explores both the guidelines established by casuists and pamphleteers for swearing lawfully, and the responses of individual subscribers when confronted with conflicting demands for their political allegiance. In this way, the article demonstrates the importance of subscription returns as a source for political historians, as well as genealogists and demographic researchers. The article concludes that individuals often chose to equivocate or to refuse oaths, not because they found them politically unacceptable, but because they were afraid of forswearing themselves.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)408-24
    Number of pages16
    JournalHistorical Research
    Publication statusPublished - 2002

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