Teacher–Student relationship quality as a barometer of teaching and learning effectiveness: Conceptualization and measurement

Sophia Jowett, Victoria E. Warburton, Lee C. Beaumont, Luke Felton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Teacher–Student relationship (TSR) is instrumental for young children and adolescents' socio‐emotional development and wellbeing as well as academic engagement and progress. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties, including reliability and factorial, convergent, and predictive validity, of the Teacher–Student Relationship Quality Questionnaire (TSRQ‐Q) with two samples of students. Sample(s): Participants were 294 students from secondary schools in the East Midlands and the East of England. Participants were separated into two samples; those who completed the TSRQ‐Q with their physical education teacher in mind (n = 150 students) and those who completed it with their mathematics teacher in mind (n = 144 students). Method: A multi‐section questionnaire comprised of the TSRQ‐Q and other validated measures was completed on one occasion by students in both samples to assess their perceptions of the quality of the TSR, positive and negative affect, intrinsic motivation, physical self‐concept, enjoyment, and perceived competence. Results: In both samples, the TSRQ‐Q demonstrated good internal consistency, factorial, convergent, and predictive validity. The quality of the TSR had both direct and indirect effects through positive affect on student outcomes in mathematics and physical education. Conclusions: The TSRQ‐Q is a valid measure for assessing students' perceptions of the quality of the relationship with their teacher. The conceptual and practical significance of this unique relationship was reflected by its dual pathway effect on a range of student outcomes and via influencing students' positive affect in the classroom.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date17 Apr 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Apr 2023


  • mathematics
  • physical education
  • relationship quality
  • Teacher–Student
  • TSRQ‐Q
  • youth

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