The Cooper-Norcross Inventory of Preferences: Measurement invariance across & international datasets and languages

Tomáš Řiháček, Mick Cooper, Hynek Cígler, Zhuang She, Gina Di Malta, John C. Norcross

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© 2023 Informa UK Limited . The attached document (embargoed until 15/09/2024) is an author produced version of a paper published in Psychotherapy Research uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. The final published version (version of record) is available online at the link. Some minor differences between this version and the final published version may remain. We suggest you refer to the final published version should you wish to cite from it.

The Cooper-Norcross Inventory of Preferences (C-NIP) is a brief, multidimensional measure of clients' therapy preferences. This study aimed to examine the factor structure and measurement invariance of the C-NIP. Fifteen datasets (  = 10,088 observations) representing the C-NIP in nine language versions were obtained from authors of psychometric studies. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. None of the proposed models adequately fit the data. Therefore, a new model was developed that sufficiently fit most of the C-NIP version 1.1 datasets. The new model was invariant up to the strict and means levels across genders, ages, and psychotherapy experience but only up to the metric level across translations. The C-NIP can be used to compare men and women, people of diverse ages, and people with some vs. no experience with psychotherapy. Lower reliabilities of the C-NIP scales are a limitation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalPsychotherapy Research
Early online date15 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2023


  • C-NIP
  • Cooper-Norcross Inventory of Preferences
  • measurement invariance
  • preferences
  • psychotherapy

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