Using manipultives in the foundations of arithmetic: main report; examples for teachers

Susan Gifford, Rose Griffiths, Jenni Back

Research output: Book/ReportOther reportpeer-review


Research in teaching arithmetic to young children suggests that manipulatives can support mathematical development. However, the most effective ways to use manipulatives are not clearly understood by teachers, and so they are often under-used.

This study explored the learning and teaching of basic arithmetic for children aged 3 to 9, focusing on the effective use of manipulatives. The researchers reviewed current and historical research and practice. They then developed detailed exemplars of good practice together with teachers and children.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherUniversity of Leicester
Commissioning bodyNuffield Foundation
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017


  • manipulatives
  • primary education
  • arithmetic

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