Using the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) to identify caregiver – infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns in six European countries: Identify Abusive Relationships With the PIR-GAS

Kornilia Hatzinikolaou, Vassiliki Karveli, Aggeliki Skoubourdi, Foteini Zarokosta, Gianluca Antonucci, Giovanni Visci, Maria Manuela Calheiros, Eunice Magalhães, Cecilia Essau, Sharon Allan, Jayshree Pithia, Fahreen Walji, Lourdes Ezpeleta, Ruth Perez-robles, Kostas A. Fanti, Evita Katsimicha, Maria-zoe Hadjicharambous, George Nikolaidis, Vasudevi Reddy

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The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0–3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent–Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver–infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver–child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., 2009), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0–3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed.

© 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. The attached document (embargoed until 28/06/2017) is an author produced version of a paper published in Infant Ment. Health J. uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self- archiving policy. The final published version (version of record) is available online at Some minor differences between this version and the final published version may remain. We suggest you refer to the final published version should you wish to cite from it.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-355
JournalInfant Mental Health Journal
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2016


  • PIR-GAS; DC: 0–3R; infant and toddler abuse and neglect; relationship classification; PIR-GAS; DC: 0–3R; abuso y negligencia de infantes y niños pequeños; clasificación de la relación; PIR-GAS; DC: 0–3R; maltraitance et négligence des bébés et des petits enfants; classification de la relation; PIR-GAS; DC: 0–3R; Missbrauch und Vernachlässigung bei Säuglingen und Kleinkindern; Beziehungsklassifikation; PIR-GAS; DC: 0–3R; 乳幼児の虐待とネグレクト; 関係性分類; PIR-GAS; DC : 0-3R; 嬰兒幼兒虐待和忽視; 關係分類

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