Validation of the Cooper–Norcross Inventory of Preferences (C-NIP) in Chinese Lay Clients and Mental Health Professionals: Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Scale Differences: Factor structure, measurement invariance, and scale differences

Zhuang She, Juzhe Xi, Mick Cooper, John C Norcross, Gina Di Malta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Downloads (Pure)


The Cooper-Norcross Inventory of Preferences (C-NIP) is one of the most widely used measures of psychotherapy preferences. However, its psychometric properties have not been examined in non-Western samples. Research on disparities between the preferences of mental health professionals and their clients is also limited. We evaluated the C-NIP's psychometric properties and measurement invariance in Chinese lay clients and mental health professionals and evaluated the latent mean differences between clients' and professionals' scores on the C-NIP's four scales (preference for therapist vs. client directiveness, emotional intensity vs. emotional reserve, past vs. present orientation, and warm support vs. focused challenge). This cross-sectional investigation involved 301 lay clients and 856 mental health professionals who completed the Chinese version of the C-NIP. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used to examine the factor structure of the C-NIP. ESEM provided stronger evidence than CFA for the four-factor model in both samples. The four scales had adequate internal consistency in both the lay clients (αs = .68-.89) and the mental health professionals (αs = .70-.80). Partial scalar invariance was established across these two populations. Chinese mental health professionals preferred less therapist directiveness, past orientation, and warm support-but more emotional intensity-than Chinese lay clients ( ds = 0.25-0.90). Culture-specific cutoff values (norms) to identify strong therapy preferences were established. This study supports the application of the C-NIP to non-Western populations and suggests that discrepancies between the preferences of lay clients and mental health professionals are a cross-cultural phenomenon. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Early online date30 Mar 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Mar 2023

Cite this