"We will still be confused!": online shopping and trade mark law in the AI era

Hiroko Onishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Examines whether trade mark law requires revision to accommodate behavioural changes by consumers driven by their use of artificial intelligence (AI) when making online purchases. Reviews how consumers shop online with reference to hypothetical examples, and details relevant trade mark concepts including likelihood of confusion. Reflects on whether post-sales confusion requires re-examination.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)397-401
JournalEuropean Intellectual Property Review
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Artificial Intelligence
  • automated decision
  • trade mark confusion
  • e-commerce
  • trade marks

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