Whole-body biomechanical differences between limbs exist 9 months after ACL reconstruction across jump/landing tasks

Enda King, Chris Richter, Andy Franklyn-Miller, Katherine Daniels, Ross Wadey, Ray Moran, Siobhan Strike

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INTRODUCTION: Previous studies examining jump tasks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have focused on performance measures without examining joint kinematic and kinetic variables. The aim of this study was to identify differences in biomechanical and performance measures between limbs across tests 9 months after surgery.

METHODS: Four jump tests (double-leg drop jump (DLDJ), single-leg drop jump (SLDJ), single-leg hop for distance (SLHD) and hurdle hop (HH)) were carried out on 156 male subjects in a 3D motion capture laboratory 9 months after surgery. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify differences in jump performance and biomechanical variables between limbs.

RESULTS: Biomechanical measures were lower on the ACLR side across all four tests for internal knee valgus moment (effect size (ES) 0.77-0.92), knee internal rotation angle (ES 0.59-0.8), and ankle external rotation moment (ES 0.59-0.73), with the center of mass less posterior to the knee during the single-leg tests (ES 0.61-0.82). The timing of the largest difference between limbs was not at the same % stance between variables within a test or for any variable across tests. Large ES differences were observed in performance in the SLDJ (ES 0.73-0.81; LSI 78%) and small differences in the SLHD (ES 0.36; LSI 94%) between the limbs.

CONCLUSION: Findings highlighted biomechanical differences between limbs which are consistent across jump tasks suggesting insufficient rehabilitation at 9 months post surgery. Results indicate that the SLDJ may identify greater performance deficits between limbs than SLHD, which may over-estimate rehabilitation status.

© 2018, John Wiley & Sons. The attached document (embargoed until 04/07/2019) is an author produced version of a paper published in SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self- archiving policy. The final published version (version of record) is available online at the link. Some minor differences between this version and the final published version may remain. We suggest you refer to the final published version should you wish to cite from it.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2567-2578
Number of pages12
JournalScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Issue number12
Early online date4 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • Adult
  • Ankle
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Exercise Test
  • Hip
  • Humans
  • Knee
  • Male
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Rotation
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article

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